World War II and The Road to CHICAGO :

Like World War I, aviation technology made tremendous gains during World War II and these gains were enjoyed primarily by the United States, particularly in the area of high-capacity and long-range air transport. Why this happened was a result of an agreement between U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill: the U.S. would focus on the manufacture of high capacity and long-range transport aircraft and bombers and the Allies would focus on the manufacture of fighters and light bombers. As the war began to wind down, the potential of United States superiority in the manufacture of transport aircraft became inevitable.

In the United States, a policy needed to be developed as to post-war international aviation and it came in the form of government-to-government negotiations for landing rights. This, in effect, ended Juan Trippe’s term as a “shadow” foreign minister for U.S. aviation. As put forth by President Roosevelt, “Juan Trippe can’t have it all”, and indeed, as a reward for their support during the war effort, domestic airlines such as TWA, American Overseas Airlines (formerly American Export Airlines until American Airlines’ merger with owner American Export Lines) and Northwest were granted authority to operate international routes by the CAB.

Chicago Convention :

The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the UN charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, and details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel. The Convention also exempts air fuels in transit from (double) taxation.

The document was signed on December 7, 1944, in Chicago by 52 signatory states. It received the requisite 26th ratification on March 5, 1947, and went into effect on April 4, 1947, the same date that ICAO came into being. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The Convention has since been revised eight times (in 1959, 1963, 1969, 1975, 1980, 1997, 2000 and 2006).




Annex Title Description
Annex 1 Personnel Licensing Licensing of flight crews, air traffic controllers & aircraft maintenance personnel. Including Chapter 6 containing medical standards.
Annex 2 Rules of the Air  
Annex 3 Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation
  • Vol I – Core SARPs
  • Vol II – Appendices and Attachments
Annex 4 Aeronautical Charts  
Annex 5 Units of Measurement to be used in Air and Ground Operations  
Annex 6 Operation of Aircraft
  • Part I – International Commercial Air Transport – Aeroplanes
  • Part II – International General Aviation – Aeroplanes
  • Part III – International Operations – Helicopters
Annex 7 Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks  
Annex 8 Airworthiness of Aircraft  
Annex 9 Facilitation  
Annex 10 Aeronautical Telecommunications
  • Vol I – Radio Navigation Aids
  • Vol II – Communication Procedures including those with PANS status
  • Vol III – Communication Systems Part I – Digital Data Communication Systems Part II – Voice Communication Systems
  • Vol IV – Surveillance Radar and Collision Avoidance Systems Vol V – Aeronautical Radio Frequency Spectrum Utilization
Annex 11 Air Traffic Services Air Traffic Control Service, Flight Information Service, and Alerting Service
Annex 12 Search and Rescue  
Annex 13 Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation  
Annex 14 Aerodromes
  • Vol I – Aerodrome Design and Operations
  • Vol II – Heliports
Annex 15 Aeronautical Information Services  
Annex 16 Environmental Protection
  • Vol I – Aircraft Noise
  • Vol II – Aircraft Engine Emissions
Annex 17 Security: Safeguarding International Civil Aviation Against Acts of Unlawful Interference  
Annex 18 The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air  
Annex 19 Safety Management (Since 14 November 2013)  

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