World War II and The Road to CHICAGO :
Like World War I, aviation technology made tremendous gains during World War II and these gains were enjoyed primarily by the United States, particularly in the area of high-capacity and long-range air transport. Why this happened was a result of an agreement between U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill: the U.S. would focus on the manufacture of high capacity and long-range transport aircraft and bombers and the Allies would focus on the manufacture of fighters and light bombers. As the war began to wind down, the potential of United States superiority in the manufacture of transport aircraft became inevitable.
In the United States, a policy needed to be developed as to post-war international aviation and it came in the form of government-to-government negotiations for landing rights. This, in effect, ended Juan Trippe’s term as a “shadow” foreign minister for U.S. aviation. As put forth by President Roosevelt, “Juan Trippe can’t have it all”, and indeed, as a reward for their support during the war effort, domestic airlines such as TWA, American Overseas Airlines (formerly American Export Airlines until American Airlines’ merger with owner American Export Lines) and Northwest were granted authority to operate international routes by the CAB.
Chicago Convention :
The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the UN charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, and details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel. The Convention also exempts air fuels in transit from (double) taxation.
The document was signed on December 7, 1944, in Chicago by 52 signatory states. It received the requisite 26th ratification on March 5, 1947, and went into effect on April 4, 1947, the same date that ICAO came into being. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The Convention has since been revised eight times (in 1959, 1963, 1969, 1975, 1980, 1997, 2000 and 2006).
|Annex 1||Personnel Licensing||Licensing of flight crews, air traffic controllers & aircraft maintenance personnel. Including Chapter 6 containing medical standards.|
|Annex 2||Rules of the Air|
|Annex 3||Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation||
|Annex 4||Aeronautical Charts|
|Annex 5||Units of Measurement to be used in Air and Ground Operations|
|Annex 6||Operation of Aircraft||
|Annex 7||Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks|
|Annex 8||Airworthiness of Aircraft|
|Annex 10||Aeronautical Telecommunications||
|Annex 11||Air Traffic Services||Air Traffic Control Service, Flight Information Service, and Alerting Service|
|Annex 12||Search and Rescue|
|Annex 13||Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation|
|Annex 15||Aeronautical Information Services|
|Annex 16||Environmental Protection||
|Annex 17||Security: Safeguarding International Civil Aviation Against Acts of Unlawful Interference|
|Annex 18||The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air|
|Annex 19||Safety Management (Since 14 November 2013)|